<tt id="ei6qk"><rt id="ei6qk"></rt></tt>
<acronym id="ei6qk"></acronym>
<acronym id="ei6qk"></acronym>
<rt id="ei6qk"><center id="ei6qk"></center></rt>

論語20 堯曰篇第二十

發布時間:2020-05-18 瀏覽次數:194

 

堯曰篇第二十

本篇共3章,但段落都比較長。本篇中著名的文句有:“君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕,威而不猛”;“寬則得眾,信則民任”;“興滅國,繼絕世,舉逸民”等。這一篇中,主要談到堯禪讓帝位給舜,舜禪讓帝位給禹,即所謂三代的善政和孔子關于治理國家事務的基本要求。

 

201 堯曰(1):“咨(2)!爾舜!天之歷數在爾躬,允(3)執其中。四海困窮,天祿永終。”舜亦以命禹。曰:“予小子履(4),敢用玄牡(5),敢昭告于皇皇后帝:有罪不敢赦。帝臣不蔽,簡(6)在帝心。朕(7)躬有罪,無以萬方;萬方有罪,罪在朕躬。”周有大賚(8),善人是富。“雖有周親(9),不如仁人。百姓有過,在予一人。”謹權量(10),審法度(11),修廢官,四方之政行焉。興滅國,繼絕世,舉逸民,天下之民歸心焉。所重:民、食、喪、祭。寬則得眾,信則民任焉。敏則有功,公則說。

 

【注釋】

(1)堯曰:下面引號內的話是堯在禪讓帝位時給舜說的話。

(2)咨:即“嘖”,感嘆詞,表示贊譽。

(3)允:真誠:誠信。

(4)履:這是商湯的名字。

(5)玄牡:玄,黑色謂玄。牡,公牛。

(6)簡:閱,這里是知道的意思。

(7)朕:我。從秦始皇起,專用作帝王自稱。

(8)賚:音lài,賞賜。下面幾句是說周武王。

(9)周親:至親。

(10)權量:權,秤錘。指量輕重的標準。量,斗斛。指量容積的標準。

(11)法度:指量長度的標準。

 

【譯文】

堯說:“嘖嘖!你這位舜!上天的大命已經落在你的身上了。誠實地保持那中道吧!假如天下百姓都隱于困苦和貧窮,上天賜給你的祿位也就會永遠終止。”舜也這樣告誡過禹。(商湯)說:“我小子履謹用黑色的公牛來祭祀,向偉大的天帝禱告:有罪的人我不敢擅自赦免,天帝的臣仆我也不敢掩蔽,都由天帝的心來分辨、選擇。我本人若有罪,不要牽連天下萬方,天下萬方若有罪,都歸我一個人承擔。”周朝大封諸侯,使善人都富貴起來。(周武王)說:“我雖然有至親,不如有仁德之人。百姓有過錯,都在我一人身上。”認真檢查度量衡器,周密地制定法度,全國的政令就會通行了?;謴捅粶缤隽说膰?,接續已經斷絕了家族,提拔被遺落的人才,天下百姓就會真心歸服了。所重視的四件事:人民、糧食、喪禮、祭祀。寬厚就能得到眾人的擁護,誠信就能得到別人的任用,勤敏就能取得成績,公平就會使百姓公平。

 

【評析】

這一大段文字,記述了從堯帝以來歷代先圣先王的遺訓,中間或許有脫落之處,銜接不起來。后來的部分里,孔子對三代以來的美德善政作了高度概括,可以說是對《論語》全書中有關治國安邦平天下的思想加以總結,對后代產生了很大的影響力。

 

202 子張問孔子曰:“何如斯可以從政矣?”子曰:“尊五美,屏四惡,斯可以從政矣。”子張曰:“何謂五美?”子曰:“君子惠而不費,勞而不怨,欲而不貪,泰而不驕,威而不猛。”子張曰:“何謂惠而不費?”子曰:“因民之所利而利之,斯不亦惠而不費乎?擇可勞而勞之,又誰怨?欲仁而得仁,又焉貪?君子無眾寡,無大小,無敢慢,斯不亦泰而不驕乎?君子正其衣冠,尊其瞻視,儼然人望而畏之,斯不亦威而不猛乎?”子張曰:“何謂四惡?”子曰:“不教而殺謂之虐;不戒視成謂之暴;慢令致期謂之賊;猶之與人也,出納之吝謂之有司。”

 

【譯文】

子張問孔子說:“怎樣才可以治理政事呢?”孔子說:“尊重五種美德,排除四種惡政,這樣就可以治理政事了。”子張問:“五種美德是什么?”孔子說:“君子要給百姓以恩惠而自已卻無所耗費;使百姓勞作而不使他們怨恨;要追求仁德而不貪圖財利;莊重而不傲慢;威嚴而不兇猛。”子張說:“怎樣叫要給百姓以恩惠而自己卻無所耗費呢?”孔子說:“讓百姓們去做對他們有利的事,這不就是對百姓有利而不掏自己的腰包嘛!選擇可以讓百姓勞作的時間和事情讓百姓去做。這又有誰會怨恨呢?自己要追求仁德便得到了仁,又還有什么可貪的呢?君子對人,無論多少,勢力大小,都不怠慢他們,這不就是莊重而不傲慢嗎?君子衣冠整齊,目不邪視,使人見了就讓人生敬畏之心,這不也是威嚴而不兇猛嗎?”子張問:“什么叫四種惡政呢?”孔子說:“不經教化便加以殺戮叫做虐;不加告誡便要求成功叫做暴;不加監督而突然限期叫做賊,同樣是給人財物,卻出手吝嗇,叫做小氣。”

 

【評析】

這是子張向孔子請教為官從政的要領。這里,孔子講了“五美四惡”,這是他政治主張的基本點,其中包含有豐富的“民本”思想,比如:“因民之所利而利之”,“擇可勞而勞之”,反對“不教而殺”、“不戒視成”的暴虐之政。從這里可以看出,孔子對德治、禮治社會有自己獨到的主張,在今天仍不失其重要的借鑒價值。

 

 203 孔子曰:“不知命,無以為君子也;不知禮,無以立也;不知信,無以知人也。”

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“不懂得天命,就不能做君子;不知道禮儀,就不能立身處世;不善于分辨別人的話語,就不能真正了解他。”

 

【評析】

這一章,孔子再次君子提出三點要求,即“知命”、“知禮”、“知言”,這是君子立身處世需要特別注意的問題?!墩撜Z》一書最后一章談君子人格的內容,表明此書之側重點,就在于塑造具有理想人格的君子,培養治國安邦平天下的志士仁人。

 

 

BOOK XX   YAO YUE

 

20.1 Yao said, “Oh! you, Shun, the Heaven-determined order of succession now rests in your person. Sincerely hold fast the due Mean. If there shall be distress and want within the four seas, the Heavenly revenue will come to a perpetual end.” Shun also used the same language in giving charge to Yu. Tang said, “I the child Li, presume to use a dark-colored victim, and presume to announce to Thee, O most great and sovereign God, that the sinner I dare not pardon, and thy ministers, O God, I do not keep in obscurity. The examination of them is by thy mind, O God. If, in my person, I commit offenses, they are not to be attributed to you, the people of the myriad regions. If you in the myriad regions commit offenses, these offenses must rest on my person.” Zhou conferred great gifts, and the good were enriched. Although he has his near relatives, they are not equal to my virtuous men. The people are throwing blame upon me, the One man.” He carefully attended to the weights and measures, examined the body of the laws, restored the discarded officers, and the good government of the kingdom took its course. He revived states that had been extinguished, restored families whose line of succession had been broken, and called to office those who had retired into obscurity, so that throughout the kingdom the hearts of the people turned towards him. What he attached chief importance to were the food of the people, the duties of mourning, and sacrifices. By his generosity, he won all. By his sincerity, he made the people repose trust in him. By his earnest activity, his achievements were great. By his justice, all were delighted.

 

20.2 Zizhang asked Confucius, saying, “In what way should a person in authority act in order that he may conduct government properly?” The Master replied, “Let him honor the five excellent, and banish away the four bad, things; ---- then may he conduct government properly.” Zizhang said, “What are meant by the five excellent things?” The Master said, “When the person in authority is beneficent without great expenditure; when he lays tasks on the people without their repining; when he pursues what he desires without being covetous; when he maintains a dignified ease without being proud; when he is majestic without being fierce.” Zizhang said, “What is meant by being beneficent without great expenditure?” The Master replied, “When the person in authority makes more beneficial to the people the things from which they naturally derive benefit; ---- is not this being beneficent without great expenditure? When he chooses the labors which are proper, and makes them labor on them, who will repine? When his desires are set on benevolent government, and he secures it, who will accuse him of covetousness? Whether he has to do with many people or few, or with things great or small, he does not dare to indicate any disrespect; ---- is not this to maintain a dignified ease without any pride? He adjusts his clothes and cap, and throws a dignity into his looks, so that, thus dignified, he is looked at with awe; ---- is not this to be majestic without being fierce?” Zizhang then asked, “What are meant by the four bad things?” The Master said, “To put the people to death without having instructed them; ---- this is called cruelty. To require from them, suddenly, the full tale of work, without having given them warning; ---- this is called oppression. To issue orders as if without urgency, at first, and, when the time comes, to insist on them with severity; ---- this is called injury. And, generally, in the giving pay or rewards to men, to do it in a stingy way; ---- this is called acting the part of a mere official.”

 

20.3 The Master said, “Without recognizing the ordinances of Heaven, it is impossible to be a superior man.” Without an acquaintance with the rules of Propriety, it is impossible for the character to be established. Without knowing the force of words, it is impossible to know men.”

 

 

 

 

日韩精品一区二区中文 日韩精品 中文字幕 有码 日韩精品 有码 无码 国产