<tt id="ei6qk"><rt id="ei6qk"></rt></tt>
<acronym id="ei6qk"></acronym>
<acronym id="ei6qk"></acronym>
<rt id="ei6qk"><center id="ei6qk"></center></rt>

論語11 先進篇第十一

發布時間:2020-05-16 瀏覽次數:147

 

先進篇第十一

 

本篇共有26章,其中著名的文句有:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”“未知生,焉知死”;“過猶不及”等。這一篇中包括孔子對弟子們的評價,并以此為例說明“過猶不及”的中庸思想;學習各種知識與日后做官的關系;孔子對待鬼神、生死問題的態度。最后一章里,孔子和他的學生們各述其志向,反映出孔子政治思想上的傾向。

 

111 子曰:“先進(1)于禮樂,野人(2)也;后進(3)于禮樂,君子(4)也。如用之,則吾從先進。”

 

【注釋】

(1)先進:指先學習禮樂而后再做官的人。

(2)野人:樸素粗魯的人或指鄉野平民。

(3)后進:先做官后學習禮樂的人。

(4)君子:這里指統治者。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“先學習禮樂而后再做官的人,是(原來沒有爵祿的)平民;先當了官然后再學習禮樂的人,是君子。如果要先用人才,那我主張選用先學習禮樂的人。”

 

【評析】

在西周時期,人們因社會地位和居住地的不同,就有了貴族、平民和鄉野之人的區分??鬃舆@里認為,那些先當官,即原來就有爵祿的人,在為官以前,沒有接受禮樂知識的系統教育,還不知道怎樣為官,便當上了官。這樣的人是不可選用的。而那些本來沒有爵祿的平民,他們在當官以前已經全面系統地學習了禮樂知識,然后就知道怎樣為官,怎樣當一個好官。

 

112 子曰:“從我于陳、蔡(1)者,皆不及門(2)也。”

 

【注釋】

(1)陳、蔡:均為國名。

(2)不及門:門,這里指受教的場所。不及門,是說不在跟前受教。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“曾跟隨我從陳國到蔡地去的學生,現在都不在我身邊受教了。”

 

【評析】

公元前489年,孔子和他的學生從陳國到蔡地去。途中,他們被陳國的人們所包圍,絕糧7天,許多學生餓得不能行走。當時跟隨他的學生有子路、子貢、顏淵等人。公元前484年,孔子回魯國以后,子路、子貢等先后離開了他,顏回也死了。所以,孔子時常想念他們。這句話,就反映了孔子的這種心情。

 

113 德行(1):顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓。言語(2):宰我、子貢。政事(3):冉有、季路。文學(4):子游、子夏。

 

【注釋】

(1)德行:指能實行孝悌、忠恕等道德。

(2)言語:指善于辭令,能辦理外交。

(3)政事:指能從事政治事務。

(4)文學:指通曉書禮樂等古代文獻。

 

【譯文】

德行好的有:顏淵、閔子騫、冉伯牛、仲弓。善于辭令的有:宰我、子貢。擅長政事的有:冉有、季路。通曉文獻知識的有:子游、子夏。

 

114 子曰:“回也非助我者也,于吾言無所不說。”

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“顏回不是對我有幫助的人,他對我說的話沒有不心悅誠服的。”

 

【評析】

顏回是孔子得意門生之一,在孔子面前始終是服服貼貼、畢恭畢敬的,對于孔子的學說深信不疑、全面接受。所以,孔子多次贊揚顏回。這里,孔子說顏回“非助我者”,并不是責備顏回,而是在得意地贊許他。

 

115 子曰:“孝哉閔子騫!人不間(1)于其父母昆(2)弟之言。”

 

【注釋】

(1)間:非難、批評、挑剔。

(2)昆:哥哥,兄長。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“閔子騫真是孝順呀!人們對于他的父母兄弟稱贊他的話,沒有什么異議。”

 

116 南容三復白圭(1),孔子以其兄之子妻之。

 

【注釋】

(1)白圭:白圭指《詩經•大雅•抑之》的詩句:“白圭之玷,尚可磨也,斯蘭之玷,不可為也”意思是白玉上的污點還可以磨掉,我們言論中有毛病,就無法挽回了。這是告誡人們要謹慎自己的言語。

 

【譯文】

南容反復誦讀“白圭之玷,尚可磨也;斯言不玷,不可為也。”的詩句??鬃影阎杜藿o了他。

 

【評析】

儒家從孔子開始,極力提倡“慎言”,不該說的話絕對不說。因為,白玉被玷污了,還可以把它磨去,而說錯了的話,則無法挽回。希望人們言語要謹慎。這里,孔子把自己的侄女嫁給了南容,表明他很欣賞南容的慎言。

 

117 季康子問:“弟子孰為好學?”孔子對曰:“有顏回者好學,不幸短命死矣,今也則亡。”

 

【譯文】

季康子問孔子:“你的學生中誰是好學的?”孔子回答說:“有一個叫顏回的學生很好學,不幸短命死了?,F在再也沒有像他那樣的了。”

 

118 顏淵死,顏路(1)請子之車以為之槨(2)。子曰:“才不才,亦各言其子也。鯉(3)也死,有棺而無槨。吾不徒行以為之槨。以吾從大夫之后(4),不可徒行也。”

 

【注釋】

(1)顏路:“顏無繇(yóu),字路,顏淵的父親,也是孔子的學生,生于公元前545年。

(2)?。阂簦纾酲?,古人所用棺材,內為棺,外為槨。

(3)鯉:孔子的兒子,字伯魯,死時50歲,孔子70歲。

(4)從大夫之后:跟隨在大夫們的后面,意即當過大夫??鬃釉隰攪嗡究?,是大夫一級的官員。

 

【譯文】

顏淵死了,(他的父親)顏路請求孔子賣掉車子,給顏淵買個外槨??鬃诱f:“(雖然顏淵和鯉)一個有才一個無才,但各自都是自己的兒子??柞幩赖臅r候,也是有棺無槨。我沒有賣掉自己的車子步行而給他買槨。因為我還跟隨在大夫之后,是不可以步行的。”

 

【評析】

顏淵是孔子的得意門生??鬃佣啻胃叨确Q贊顏淵,認為他有很好的品德,又好學上進。顏淵死了,他的父親顏路請孔子賣掉自己的車子,給顏淵買槨。盡管孔子十分悲痛,但他卻不愿意賣掉車子。因為他曾經擔任過大夫一級的官員,而大夫必須有自己的車子,不能步行,否則就違背了禮的規定。這一章反映了孔子對禮的嚴謹態度。

 

 

119 顏淵死,子曰:“噫!天喪予!天喪予!”

 

【譯文】

顏淵死了,孔子說:“唉!是老天爺真要我的命呀!是老天爺真要我的命呀!”

 

1110 顏淵死,子哭之慟(1)。從者曰:“子慟矣。”曰:“有慟乎?非夫(2)人之為慟而誰為?”

 

【注釋】

(1)慟:哀傷過度,過于悲痛。

(2)夫:音fú,指示代詞,此處指顏淵。

 

【譯文】

顏淵死了,孔子哭得極其悲痛。跟隨孔子的人說:“您悲痛過度了!”孔子說:“是太悲傷過度了嗎?我不為這個人悲傷過度,又為誰呢?”

 

1111 顏淵死,門人欲厚葬(1)之,子曰:“不可。”門人厚葬之。子曰:“回也視予猶父也,予不得視猶子也(2)。非我也,夫(3)二三子也。”

 

【注釋】

(1)厚葬:隆重地安葬。

(2)予不得視猶子也:我不能把他當親生兒子一樣看待。

(3)夫:語助詞。

 

【譯文】

顏淵死了,孔子的學生們想要隆重地安葬他??鬃诱f:“不能這樣做。”學生們仍然隆重地安葬了他??鬃诱f:“顏回把我當父親一樣看待,我卻不能把他當親生兒子一樣看待。這不是我的過錯,是那些學生們干的呀。”

 

【評析】

孔子說:“予不得視猶子也”,這句話的意思是,不能像對待自己親生的兒子那樣,按照禮的規定,對他予以安葬。他的學生仍隆重地埋葬了顏淵,孔子說,這不是自己的過錯,而是學生們做的。這仍是表明孔子遵從禮的原則,即使是在厚葬顏淵的問題上,仍是如此。

 

1112 季路問事鬼神。子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”曰:“敢問死。”曰:“未知生,焉知死?”

 

【譯文】

季路問怎樣去事奉鬼神??鬃诱f:“沒能事奉好人,怎么能事奉鬼呢?”季路說:“請問死是怎么回事?”(孔子回答)說:“還不知道活著的道理,怎么能知道死呢?”

 

【評析】

孔子這里講的“事人”,指事奉君父。在君父活著的時候,如果不能盡忠盡孝,君父死后也就談不上孝敬鬼神,他希望人們能夠忠君孝父。本章表明了孔子在鬼神、生死問題上的基本態度,他不信鬼神,也不把注意力放在來世,或死后的情形上,在君父生前要盡忠盡孝,至于對待鬼神就不必多提了。這一章為他所說的“敬鬼神而遠之”做了注腳。

 

1113 閔子侍側,訚訚(1)如也;子路,行行(2)如也;冉有、子貢,侃侃(3)如也。子樂。“若由也,不得其死然。”

 

【注釋】

(1)訚訚:音yín,和顏悅色的樣子。

(2)行行:音hàng,剛強的樣子。

(3)侃侃:說話理直氣壯。

 

【譯文】

閔子騫侍立在孔子身旁,一派和悅而溫順的樣子;子路是一副剛強的樣子;冉有、子貢是溫和快樂的樣子??鬃痈吲d了。但孔子又說:“像仲由這樣,只怕不得好死吧!”

 

【評析】

子路這個人有勇無謀,盡管他非常剛強??鬃右环矫鏋樗倪@些學生各有特長而高興,但又擔心子路,惟恐他不會有好的結果。師之愛生,人之常情??鬃拥倪@種擔心,就說明了這一點。

 

1114 魯人(1)為長府(2)。閔子騫曰:“仍舊貫(3),如之何?何必改作?”子曰:“夫人(4)不言,言必有中。”

 

【注釋】

(1)魯人:這里指魯國的當權者。這就是人和民的區別。

(2)為長府:為,這里是改建的意思。藏財貨、兵器等的倉庫叫“府”,長府是魯國的國庫名。

(3)仍舊貫:貫:事,例。沿襲老樣子。

(4)夫人:夫,音fú,這個人。

 

【譯文】

魯國翻修長府的國庫。閔子騫道:“照老樣子下去,怎么樣?何必改建呢?”孔子道:“這個人平日不大開口,一開口就說到要害上。”

 

 

1115 子曰:“由之瑟(1)奚為于丘之門(2)?”門人不敬子路。子曰:“由也升堂矣,未入于室(3)也。”

 

【注釋】

(1)瑟:音sè,一種古樂器,與古琴相似。

(2)奚為于丘之門:奚,為什么。為,彈。為什么在我這里彈呢?

(3)升堂入室:堂是正廳,室是內室,用以形容學習程度的深淺。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“仲由彈瑟,為什么在我這里彈呢?”孔子的學生們因此都不尊敬子路??鬃颖阏f:“仲由嘛,他在學習上已經達到升堂的程度了,只是還沒有入室罷了。”

 

【評析】

這一段文字記載了孔子對子路的評價。他先是用責備的口氣批評子路,當其它門人都不尊敬子路時,他便改口說子路已經登堂尚未入室。這是就演奏樂器而言的??鬃訉W生的態度應該講是比較客觀的,有成績就表揚,有過錯就反對,讓學生認識到自己的不足,同時又樹立起信心,爭取更大的成績。

 

1116 子貢問:“師與商(1)也孰賢?”子曰:“師也過,商也不及。”曰:“然則師愈(2)與?”子曰:“過猶不及。”

 

【注釋】

(1)師與商:師,顓孫師,即子張。商,卜商,即子夏。

(2)愈:勝過,強些。

 

【譯文】

子貢問孔子:“子張和子夏二人誰更好一些呢?”孔子回答說:“子張過份,子夏不足。”子貢說:“那么是子張好一些嗎?”孔子說:“過分和不足是一樣的。”

 

【評析】

“過猶不及”即中庸思想的具體說明?!吨杏埂氛f,過猶不及為中。“道之不行也,我知之矣。知者過之,愚者不及也。道之不明也,我知之矣。賢者過之,不肖者不及也。”“執其兩端,用其中于民,其斯以為舜乎?”這是說,舜于兩端取其中,既非過,也非不及,以中道教化百姓,所以為大圣。這就是對本章孔子“過猶不及”的具體解釋。既然子張做得過份、子夏做得不足,那么兩人都不好,所以孔子對此二人的評價就是:“過猶不及”。

 

1117 季氏富于周公(1),而求也為之聚斂(2)而附益(3)之。子曰:“非吾徒也。小子鳴鼓而攻之(4)可也。”

【注釋】

(1)季氏富于周公:季氏比周朝的公侯還要富有。

(2)聚斂:積聚和收集錢財,即搜刮。

(3)益:增加。

 

【譯文】

季氏比周朝的公侯還要富有,而冉求還幫他搜刮來增加他的錢財??鬃诱f:“他不是我的學生了,你們可以大張旗鼓地去攻擊他吧!”

 

【評析】

魯國的三家曾于公元前562年將公室,即魯國國君直轄的土地和附屬于土地上的奴隸瓜分,季氏分得三分之一,并用封建的剝削方式取代了奴隸制的剝削方式。公元前537年,三家第二次瓜分公室,季氏分得四分之二。由于季氏推行了新的政治和經濟措施,所以很快富了起來??鬃拥膶W生冉求幫助季氏積斂錢財,搜刮人民,所以孔子很生氣,表示不承認冉求是自己的學生,而且讓其他學生打著鼓去聲討冉求。

 

1118 (1)也愚(2),參也魯(3),師也辟(4),由也喭(5)。

 

【注釋】

(1)柴:高柴,字子羔,孔子學生,比孔子小30歲,公元前521年出生。

(2)愚:舊注云:愚直之愚,指愚而耿直,不是傻的意思。

(3)魯:遲鈍。

(4)辟:音pì,偏,偏激,邪。

(5)喭:音yàn,魯莽,粗魯,剛猛。

 

【譯文】

高柴愚直,曾參遲鈍,顓孫師偏激,仲由魯莽。

 

【評析】

孔子認為,他的這些學生各有所偏,不合中行,對他們的品質和德行必須加以糾正。這一段同樣表達了孔子的中庸思想。中庸是一種折衷調和思想,調和與折衷是事物發展過程中的一種狀態,這種狀態是相對的、暫時的??鬃咏沂玖耸挛锇l展過程的這一狀態,并概括為“中庸”,這在中國古代認識史上是有貢獻的。

 

1119 子曰:“回也其庶(1)乎,屢空(2)。賜不受命,而貨殖(3)焉,億(4)則屢中。”

 

【注釋】

(1)庶:庶幾,相近。這里指顏淵的學問道德接近于完善。

(2)空:貧困、匱乏。

(3)貨殖:做買賣。

(4)億:同“臆”,猜測,估計。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“顏回的學問道德接近于完善了吧,可是他常常貧困。端本賜不聽命運的安排,去做買賣,猜測行情,往往猜中了。”

 

【評析】

這一章,孔子對顏回學問道德接近于完善卻在生活上常常貧困深感遺憾。同時,他對子貢不聽命運的安排去經商致富反而感到不滿,這在孔子看來,是極其不公正的。

 

1120 子張問善人(1)之道,子曰:“不踐跡(2),亦不入于室(3)。”

 

【注釋】

(1)善人:指本質善良但沒有經過學習的人。

(2)踐跡:跡,腳印。踩著前人的腳印走。

(3)入于室:比喻學問和修養達到了精深地步。

 

【譯文】

子張問做善人的方法??鬃诱f:“如果不沿著前人的腳印走,其學問和修養就不到家。

 

1121 子曰:“論篤是與(1),君子者乎?色莊者乎?”

 

【注釋】

(1)論篤是與:論,言論。篤,誠懇。與,贊許。意思是對說話篤實誠懇的人表示贊許。

 

【譯文】

孔子說:“聽到人議論篤實誠懇就表示贊許,但還應看他是真君子呢?還是偽裝莊重的人呢?”

 

【評析】

孔子希望他的學生們不但要說話篤實誠懇,而且要言行一致。在第五篇第10章中曾有“聽其言而觀其行”的說法,表明孔子在觀察別人的時候,不僅要看他說話時誠懇的態度,而且要看他的行動。言行一致才是真君子。

 

1122 子路問:“聞斯行諸(1)?”子曰:“有父兄在,如之何其聞斯行之?”冉有問:“聞斯行諸?”子曰:“聞斯行之。”公西華曰:“由也問聞斯行諸,子曰,‘有父兄在’;求也問聞斯行諸,子曰,‘聞斯行之’。赤也惑,敢問。”子曰:“求也退,故進之;由也兼人(2),故退之。”

 

【注釋】

(1)諸:“之乎”二字的合音。

(2)兼人:好勇過人。

 

【譯文】

子路問:“聽到了就行動起來嗎?”孔子說:“有父兄在,怎么能聽到就行動起來呢?”冉有問:“聽到了就行動起來嗎?”孔子說:“聽到了就行動起來。”公西華說:“仲由問‘聽到了就行動起來嗎?’你回答說‘有父兄健在’,冉求問‘聽到了就行動起來嗎?’你回答‘聽到了就行動起來’。我被弄糊涂了,敢再問個明白。”孔子說:“冉求總是退縮,所以我鼓勵他;仲由好勇過人,所以我約束他。”

 

【評析】

這是孔子把中庸思想貫穿于教育實踐中的一個具體事例。在這里,他要自己的學生不要退縮,也不要過頭冒進,要進退適中。所以,對于同一個問題,孔子針對子路與冉求的不同情況作了不同回答。同時也生動地反映了孔子教育方法的一個特點,即因材施教。

 

1123 子畏于匡,顏淵后。子曰:“吾以女為死矣。”曰:“子在,回何敢死?”

 

【譯文】

孔子在匡地受到當地人圍困,顏淵最后才逃出來??鬃诱f:“我以為你已經死了呢。”顏淵說:“夫子還活著,我怎么敢死呢?”

 

1124 季子然(1)問:“仲由、冉求可謂大臣與?”子曰:“吾以子為異之問,曾(2)由與求之間。所謂大臣者,以道事君,不可則止。今由與求也,可謂具臣(3)矣。”曰:“然則從之(4)者與?”子曰:“弒父與君,亦不從也。”

 

【注釋】

(1)季子然:魯國季氏的同族人。

(2)曾:乃。

(3)具臣:普通的臣子。

(4)之:代名詞,這里指季氏。當時冉求和子路都是季氏的家臣。

 

【譯文】

季子然問:“仲由和冉求可以算是大臣嗎?孔子說:“我以為你是問別人,原來是問由和求呀。所謂大臣是能夠用周公之道的要求來事奉君主,如果這樣不行,他寧肯辭職不干?,F在由和求這兩個人,只能算是充數的臣子罷了。”季子然說:“那么他們會一切都跟著季氏干嗎?”孔子說:“殺父親、殺君主的事,他們也不會跟著干的。”

【評析】

孔子這里指出“以道事君”的原則,他告誡冉求和子路應當用周公之道去規勸季氏,不要犯上作亂,如果季氏不聽,就辭職不干。由此可見,孔子對待君臣關系以道和禮為準繩的。這里,他既要求臣,也要求君,雙方都應遵循道和禮。如果季氏干殺父殺君的事,冉求和子路就要加以反對。

 

1125 子路使子羔為費宰。子曰:“賊(1)夫人之子(2)。”子路曰:“有民人焉,有社稷(3)焉,何必讀書,然后為學?”子曰:“是故惡(4)夫佞者。”

 

【注釋】

(1)賊:害。

(2)夫人之子:指子羔??鬃诱J為他沒有經過很好的學習就去從政,這會害了他自己的。

(3)社稷:社,土地神。稷,谷神。這里“社稷”指祭祀土地神和谷神的地方,即社稷壇。古代國都及各地都設立社稷壇,分別由國君和地方長官主祭,故社稷成為國家政權的象征。

 

【譯文】

子路讓子羔去作費地的長官??鬃诱f:“這簡直是害人子弟。”子路說:“那個地方有老百姓,有社稷,治理百姓和祭祀神靈都是學習,難道一定要讀書才算學習嗎?”孔子說:“所以我討厭那種花言巧語狡辯的人。”

 

1126 子路、曾皙(1)、冉有、公西華侍坐。子曰:“以吾一日長乎爾,毋吾以也(2)。居(3)則曰:‘不吾知也!’如或知爾,則何以哉(4)?”子路率爾(5)而對曰:“千乘之國,攝(6)乎大國之間,加之以師旅,因之以饑饉,由也為之,比及(7)三年,可使有勇,且知方也(8)。”夫子哂(9)之。“求,爾何如?”對曰:“方六七十(10),如(11)五六十,求也為之,比及三年,可使足民。如其禮樂,以俟君子。”“赤,爾何如?”對曰:“非曰能之,愿學焉。宗廟之事(12),如會同(13),端章甫(14),愿為小相(15)焉。”“點,爾何如?”鼓瑟希(16),鏗爾,舍瑟而作(17),對曰:“異乎三子者之撰。”子曰:“何傷乎?亦各言其志也。”曰:“莫(18)春者,春服既成,冠者(19)五六人,童子六七人,浴乎沂(20),風乎舞雩(21),詠而歸。”夫子喟然嘆曰:“吾與點也!”三子者出,曾皙后。曾皙曰:“夫三子者之言何如?”子曰:“亦各言其志也已矣。”曰:“夫子何哂由也?”曰:“為國以禮。其言不讓,是故哂之。”唯(22)求則非邦也與?”“安見方六七十如五六十而非邦也者?”“唯赤則非邦也與?”“宗廟會同,非諸侯而何?赤也為之小,孰能為之大?”

 

【注釋】

(1)曾皙:名點,字子皙,曾參的父親,也是孔子的學生。

(2)以吾一日長乎爾,毋以也:雖然我比你們的年齡稍長一些,而不敢說話。

(3)居:平日。

(4)則何以哉:何以,即何以為用。

(5)率爾:輕率、急切。

(6)攝:迫于、夾于。

(7)比及:比,音bì。等到。

(8)方:方向。

(9)哂:音shěn,譏諷地微笑。

(10)方六七十:縱橫各六七十里。

(11)如:或者。

(12)宗廟之事:指祭祀之事。

(13)會同:諸侯會見。

(14)瑞章甫:端,古代禮服的名稱。章甫,古代禮帽的名稱。

(15)相:贊禮人,司儀。

(16)希:同“稀”,指彈瑟的速度放慢,節奏逐漸稀疏。

(17)作:站起來。

(18)莫:同“暮”。

(19)冠者:成年人。古代子弟到20歲時行冠禮,表示已經成年。

(20)浴乎沂:沂,水名,發源于山東南部,流經江蘇北部入海。在水邊洗頭面手足。

(21)舞雩:雩,音yú。地名,原是祭天求雨的地方,在今山東曲阜。

(22)唯:語首詞,沒有什么意義。

 

【譯文】

子路、曾皙、冉有、公西華四個人陪孔子坐著??鬃诱f:“我年齡比你們大一些,不要因為我年長而不敢說。你們平時總說:‘沒有人了解我呀!’假如有人了解你們,那你們要怎樣去做呢?”子路趕忙回答:“一個擁有一千輛兵車的國家,夾在大國中間,常常受到別的國家侵犯,加上國內又鬧饑荒,讓我去治理,只要三年,就可以使人們勇敢善戰,而且懂得禮儀。”孔子聽了,微微一笑??鬃佑謫枺?ldquo;冉求,你怎么樣呢?”冉求答道:國土有六七十里或五六十里見方的國家,讓我去治理,三年以后,就可以使百姓飽暖。至于這個國家的禮樂教化,就要等君子來施行了。”孔子又問:“公西赤,你怎么樣?”公西赤答道:“我不敢說能做到,而是愿意學習。在宗廟祭祀的活動中,或者在同別國的盟會中,我愿意穿著禮服,戴著禮帽,做一個小小的贊禮人。”孔子又問:“曾點,你怎么樣呢?”這時曾點彈瑟的聲音逐漸放慢,接著“鏗”的一聲,離開瑟站起來,回答說:“我想的和他們三位說的不一樣。”孔子說:“那有什么關系呢?也就是各人講自己的志向而已。”曾皙說:“暮春三月,已經穿上了春天的衣服,我和五六位成年人,六七個少年,去沂河里洗洗澡,在舞雩臺上吹吹風,一路唱著歌走回來。”孔子長嘆一聲說:“我是贊成曾皙的想法的。”子路、冉有、公西華三個人的都出去了,曾皙后走。他問孔子說:“他們三人的話怎么樣?”孔子說:“也就是各自談談自己的志向罷了。”曾皙說:“夫子為什么要笑仲由呢?”孔子說:“治理國家要講禮讓,可是他說話一點也不謙讓,所以我笑他。”曾皙又問:“那么是不是冉求講的不是治理國家呢?”孔子說:“哪里見得六七十里或五六十里見方的地方就不是國家呢?”曾皙又問:”公西赤講的不是治理國家嗎?”孔子說:“宗廟祭祀和諸侯會盟,這不是諸侯的事又是什么?像赤這樣的人如果只能做一個小相,那誰又能做大相呢?”

 

【評析】

孔子認為,前三個人的治國方法,都沒有談到根本上。他之所以只贊賞曾點的主張,因為曾點用形象的方法描繪了禮樂之治下的景象,體現了“仁”和“禮”的治國原則,這就談到了根本點上。這一章,孔子和他的學生們自述其政治上的抱負,從中可以看出孔子的政治理想。

 

 

BOOK XI   XIAN JIN

 

11.1 The Master said, “The men of former times in the matters of ceremonies and music were rustics, it is said, while the men of these latter times, in ceremonies and music, are accomplished gentlemen. If I have occasion to use those things, I follow the men of former times.”

 

11.2 The Master said, “Of those who were with me in Chen and Cai, there are none to be found to enter my door.”

 

11.3 Distinguished for their virtuous principles and practice, there were Yan Youan, Min Ziqian, Ran Boniu, and Zhonggong; for their ability in speech, Zai Wo and Zigong; for their administrative talents, Ran You and Ji Lu; for their literary acquirements, Ziyou and Zixia.

 

11.4 The Master said, “Hui gives me no assistance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not delight.”

 

11.5 The Master said, “Filial indeed is Min Ziqian! Other people say nothing of him different from the report of his parents and brothers.”

 

11.6 Nan Rong was frequently repeating the lines about a white scepter stone. Confucius gave him the daughter of his elder brother to wife.

 

11.7 Ji Kang asked which of the disciples loved to learn. Confucius replied to him, “There was Yan Hui; he loved to learn. Unfortunately his appointed time was short, and he died. Now there is no one who loves to learn, as he did.”

 

11.8 When Yan Youan died, Yan Lu begged the carriage of the Master to sell and get an outer shell for his son’s coffin. The Master said, “Every one calls his son his son, whether he has talents or has not talents. There was Li; when he died, he had a coffin but no outer shell. I would not walk on foot to get a shell for him, because, having followed in the rear of the great officers, it was not proper that I should walk on foot.”

 

11.9 When Yan Youan died, the Master said, “Alas! Heaven is destroying me! Heaven is destroying me!”

 

11.10 When Yan Youan died, the Master bewailed him exceedingly, and the disciples who were with him said, “Master, your grief is excessive!” “Is it excessive?” said he. “If I am not to mourn bitterly for this man, for whom should I mourn?”

 

11.11 When Yan Youan died, the disciples wished to give him a great funeral, and the Master said, “You may not do so.” The disciples did bury him in great style. The Master said, “Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not been able to treat him as my son. The fault is not mine; it belongs to you, O disciples.”

 

11.12 Ji Lu asked about serving the spirits of the dead. The Master said, “While you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their spirits?” Ji Lu added, “I venture to ask about death?” He was answered, “While you do not know life, how can you know about death?”

 

11.13 The disciple Min was standing by his side, looking bland and precise; Zilu, looking bold and soldierly; Ran You and Zigong, with a free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased. He said, “You, there! ---- he will not die a natural death.”

 

11.14 Some parties in Lu were going to take down and rebuild the Long Treasury. Min Ziqian said, “Suppose it were to be repaired after its old style; ---- why must it be altered and made anew?” The Master said, “This man seldom speaks; when he does, he is sure to hit the point.”

 

11.15 The Master said, “What has the lute of You to do in my door?” The other disciples began not to respect Zilu. The Master said, “You has ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the inner apartments.”

 

11.16 Zigong asked which of the two, Shi or Shang, was the superior. The Master said, “Shi goes beyond the due mean, and Shang does not come up to it.” “Then,” said Zigong, “the superiority is with Shi, I suppose.” The Master said, “To go beyond is as wrong as to fall short.”

 

11.17 The head of the Chi family was richer than the duke of Zhou had been, and yet Qiu collected his imposts for him, and increased his wealth. The Master said, “He is no disciple of mine. My little children, beat the drum and assail him.”

 

11.18 Chai is simple. Shen is dull. Shi is specious. You is coarse.

 

11.19 The Master said, “There is Hui. He has nearly attained to perfect virtue. He is often in want. Ci does not acquiesce in the appointments of Heaven, and his goods are increased by him. Yet his judgments are often correct.”

 

11.20 Zizhang asked what were the characteristics of the good man. The Master said, “He does not tread in the footsteps of others, but moreover, he does not enter the chamber of the sage.”

 

11.21 The Master said, “If, because a man’s discourse appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, is he really a superior man? or is his gravity only in appearance?”

 

11.22 Zilu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard. The Master said, “There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted;-why should you act on that principle of immediately carrying into practice what you hear?” Ran You asked the same, whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and the Master answered, “Immediately carry into practice what you hear.” Gongxi Hua said, “You asked whether he should carry immediately into practice what he heard, and you said, ’There are your father and elder brothers to be consulted.’ Qiu asked whether he should immediately carry into practice what he heard, and you said, ’Carry it immediately into practice.’ I, Chi, am perplexed, and venture to ask you for an explanation.” The Master said, “Qiu is retiring and slow; therefore I urged him forward. You has more than his own share of energy; therefore I kept him back.”

 

11.23 The Master was put in fear in Kuang and Yan Yuan fell behind. The Master, on his rejoining him, said, “I thought you had died.” Hui replied, “While you were alive, how should I presume to die?”

 

11.24 Ji Ziran asked whether Zhongyou and Ran Qiu could be called great ministers. The Master said, “I thought you would ask about some extraordinary individuals, and you only ask about You and Qiu!” What is called a great minister, is one who serves his prince according to what is right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires. “Now, as to You and Qiu, they may be called ordinary ministers.” Ziran said, “Then they will always follow their chief;-win they?” The Master said, “In an act of parricide or regicide, they would not follow him.”

 

11.25 Zilu got Zigao appointed governor of Fei. The Master said, “You are injuring a man’s son.” Zilu said, “There are, there, common people and officers; there are the altars of the spirits of the land and grain. Why must one read books before he can be considered to have learned?” The Master said, “It is on this account that I hate your glib-tongued people.”

 

11.26 Zilu, Zeng Xi, Ran You, and Gongxi Hua were sitting by the Master. He said to them, “Though I am a day or so older than you, do not think of that. “From day to day you are saying, ‘We are not known.’ If some ruler were to know you, what would you like to do?” Zilu hastily and lightly replied, “Suppose the case of a state of ten thousand chariots; let it be straitened between other large cities; let it be suffering from invading armies; and to this let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables: ---- if I were entrusted with the government of it, in three years’ time I could make the people to be bold, and to recognize the rules of righteous conduct.” The Master smiled at him. Turning to Ran You, he said, “Qiu, what are your wishes?” Qiu replied, “Suppose a state of sixty or seventy li square, or one of fifty or sixty, and let me have the government of it;-in three years’ time, I could make plenty to abound among the people. As to teaching them the principles of propriety, and music, I must wait for the rise of a superior man to do that.” “What are your wishes, Chi,” said the Master next to Gongxi Hua. Chi replied, “I do not say that my ability extends to these things, but I should wish to learn them. At the services of the ancestral temple, and at the audiences of the princes with the sovereign, I should like, dressed in the dark square-made robe and the black linen cap, to act as a small assistant.” Last of all, the Master asked Zeng Xi, “Dian, what are your wishes?” Dian, pausing as he was playing on his lute, while it was yet twanging, laid the instrument aside, and rose. “My wishes,” he said, “are different from the cherished purposes of these three gentlemen.” “What harm is there in that?” said the Master; “do you also, as well as they, speak out your wishes.” Dian then said, “In this, the last month of spring, with the dress of the season all complete, along with five or six young men who have assumed the cap, and six or seven boys, I would wash in the I, enjoy the breeze among the rain altars, and return home singing.” The Master heaved a sigh and said, “I give my approval to Dian.” The three others having gone out, Zeng Xi remained behind, and said, “What do you think of the words of these three friends?” The Master replied, “They simply told each one his wishes.” Xi pursued, “Master, why did you smile at You?” He was answered, “The management of a state demands the rules of propriety. His words were not humble; therefore I smiled at him.” Xi again said, “But was it not a state which Qiu proposed for himself?” The reply was, “Yes; did you ever see a territory of sixty or seventy li or one of fifty or sixty, which was not a state?” Once more, Xi inquired, “And was it not a state which Chi proposed for himself?” The Master again replied, “Yes; who but princes have to do with ancestral temples, and with audiences but the sovereign? If Chi were to be a small assistant in these services, who could be a great one?

 

日韩精品一区二区中文 日韩精品 中文字幕 有码 日韩精品 有码 无码 国产