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論語10 鄉黨篇第十

發布時間:2020-05-15 瀏覽次數:322

 

鄉黨篇第十

 

本篇共27章,集中記載了孔子的容色言動、衣食住行,頌揚孔子是個一舉一動都符合禮的正人君子。例如孔子在面見君時、面見大夫時的態度;他出入于公門和出使別國時的表現,都顯示出正直、仁德的品格。本篇中還記載了孔子日常生活的一些側面,為人們全面了解孔子、研究孔子,提供了生動的素材。

 

101 孔子于鄉黨,恂恂(1)如也,似不能言者。其在宗廟、朝廷,便便(2)言,唯謹爾。

 

【注釋】

(1)恂恂:音xù,溫和恭順。

(2)便便:辯,善于辭令。

 

【譯文】

孔子在本鄉的地方上顯得很溫和恭敬,像是不會說話的樣子。但他在宗廟里、朝廷上,卻很善于言辭,只是說得比較謹慎而已。

 

102 朝,與下大夫言,侃侃(1)如也;與上大夫言,訚訚(2)如也。君在,踧踖(3)如也,與與(4)如也。

 

【注釋】

(1)侃侃:說話理直氣壯,不卑不亢,溫和快樂的樣子。

(2)訚訚:音yín,正直,和顏悅色而又能直言諍辯。

(3)踧踖:音cú jí,恭敬而不安的樣子。

(4)與與:小心謹慎、威儀適中的樣子。

 

【譯文】

孔子在上朝的時候,(君還沒有到來,)同下大夫說話,溫和而快樂的樣子;同上大夫說話,正直而公正的樣子;君已經來了,恭敬而心中不安的樣子,但又儀態適中。

 

103 君召使擯(1),色勃如也(2);足躩(3)如也。揖所與立,左右手,衣前后,襜(4)如也。趨進,翼如也(5)。賓退,必復命曰:“賓不顧矣。”

 

【注釋】

(1)擯:音bìn,動詞,負責招待國君的官員。

(2)色勃如也:臉色立即莊重起來。

(3)足躩:躩,音jué,腳步快的樣子。

(4)襜:音ch?。?,整齊之貌。

(5)翼如也:如鳥兒展翅一樣。

 

【譯文】

君召孔子去接待賓客,孔子臉色立即莊重起來,腳步也快起來,他向和他站在一起的人作揖,手向左或向右作揖,衣服前后擺動,卻整齊不亂??觳阶叩臅r候,像鳥兒展開雙翅一樣。賓客走后,必定君主回報說:“客人已經不回頭張望了。”

 

104 入公門,鞠躬如(1)也,如不容。立不中門,行不履閾(2)。過位,色勃如也,足躩如也,其言似不足者。攝齊(3)升堂,鞠躬如也,屏氣似不息者。出,降一等(4),逞(5)顏色,怡怡如也。沒階(6),趨進,翼如也。復其位,踧踖如也。

 

【注釋】

(1)鞠躬如:謹慎而恭敬的樣子。

(2)履閾:閾,音yù,門檻,腳踩門坎。

(3)攝齊:齊,音zī,衣服的下擺。攝,提起。提起衣服的下擺。

(4)降一等:從臺階上走下一級。

(5)逞:舒展開,松口氣。

(6)沒階:走完了臺階。

 

【譯文】

孔子走進朝廷的大門,謹慎而恭敬的樣子,好像沒有他的容身之地。站,他不站在門的中間;走,也不踩門坎。經過君的座位時,他臉色立刻莊重起來,腳步也加快起來,說話也好像中氣不足一樣。提起衣服下擺向堂上走的時候,恭敬謹慎的樣子,憋住氣好像不呼吸一樣。退出來,走下臺階,臉色便舒展開了,怡然自得的樣子。走完了臺階,快快地向前走幾步,姿態像鳥兒展翅一樣?;氐阶约旱奈恢?,是恭敬而不安的樣子。

 

105 執圭(1),鞠躬如也,如不勝。上如揖,下如授。勃如戰色(2),足蹜蹜(3),如有循(4)。享禮(5),有容色。私覿(6),愉愉如也。

 

【注釋】

(1)圭:一種上圓下方的玉器,舉行典禮時,不同身份的人拿著不同的圭。出使鄰國,大夫拿著圭作為代表君主的憑信。

(2)戰色:戰戰兢兢的樣子。

(3)蹜蹜:小步走路的樣子。

(4)如有循:循,沿著。好像沿著一條直線往前走一樣。

(5)享禮:享,獻上。指向對方貢獻禮物的儀式。使者受到接見后,接著舉行獻禮儀式。

(6)覿:音dí,會見。

 

【譯文】

(孔子出使別的諸侯國,)拿著圭,恭敬謹慎,像是舉不起來的樣子。向上舉時好像在作揖,放在下面時好像是給人遞東西。臉色莊重得像戰栗的樣子,步子很小,好像沿著一條直線往前走。在舉行贈送禮物的儀式時,顯得和顏悅色。和國君舉行私下會見的時候,更輕松愉快了。

 

【評析】

以上這五章,集中記載了孔子在朝、在鄉的言談舉止、音容笑貌,給人留下十分深刻的印象??鬃釉诓煌膱龊?,對待不同的人,往往容貌、神態、言行都不同。他在家鄉時,給人的印象是謙遜、和善的老實人;他在朝廷上,則態度恭敬而有威儀,不卑不亢,敢于講話,他在君面前,溫和恭順,局促不安,莊重嚴肅又誠惶誠恐。所有這些,為人們深入研究孔子,提供了具體的資料。

 

106 君子不以紺緅飾(1),紅紫不以為褻服(2)。當暑,袗絺绤(3),必表而出之(4)。緇衣(5),羔裘(6);素衣,麑(7)裘;黃衣,狐裘。褻裘長,短右袂(8)。必有寢衣(9),長一身有半。狐貉之厚以居(10)。去喪,無所不佩。非帷裳(11),必殺之(12)。羔裘玄冠(13)不以吊(14)。吉月(15),必朝服而朝。

 

【注釋】

(1)不以紺緅飾:紺,音gàn,深青透紅,齋戒時服裝的顏色。緅,音zōu,黑中透紅,喪服的顏色。這里是說,不以深青透紅或黑中透紅的顏色布給平常穿的衣服鑲上邊作飾物。

(2)紅紫不以為褻服:褻服,平時在家里穿的衣服。古人認為,紅紫不是正色,便服不宜用紅紫色。

(3)袗絺绤:袗,音zhěn,單衣。絺,音chī,細葛布。绤,音xì,粗葛布。這里是說,穿粗的或細的葛布單衣。

(4)必表而出之:把麻布單衣穿在外面,里面還要襯有內衣。

(5)緇衣:黑色的衣服。

(6)羔裘:羔皮衣。古代的羔裘都是黑羊皮,毛皮向外。

(7)麑:音ní,小鹿,白色。

(8)短右袂:袂,音mè,袖子。右袖短一點,是為了便于做事。

(9)寢衣:睡衣。

(10)狐貉之厚以居:狐貉之厚,厚毛的狐貉皮。居,坐。

(11)帷裳:上朝和祭祀時穿的禮服,用整幅布制作,不加以裁剪。折疊縫上。

(12)必殺之:一定要裁去多余的布。殺,裁。

(13)羔裘玄冠:黑色皮禮貌。

(14)不以吊:不用于喪事。

(15)吉月:每月初一。一說正月初一。

 

【譯文】

君子不用深青透紅或黑中透紅的布鑲邊,不用紅色或紫色的布做平常在家穿的衣服。夏天穿粗的或細的葛布單衣,但一定要套在內衣外面。黑色的羔羊皮袍,配黑色的罩衣。白色的鹿皮袍,配白色的罩衣。黃色的狐皮袍,配黃色的罩衣。平常在家穿的皮袍做得長一些,右邊的袖子短一些。睡覺一定要有睡衣,要有一身半長。用狐貉的厚毛皮做坐墊。喪服期滿,脫下喪服后,便佩帶上各種各樣的裝飾品。如果不是禮服,一定要加以剪裁。不穿著黑色的羔羊皮袍和戴著黑色的帽子去吊喪。每月初一,一定要穿著禮服去朝拜君主。

 

107 (1),必有明衣(2),布。齊必變食(3),居必遷坐(4)。

 

【注釋】

(1)齊:同齋。

(2)明衣:齋前沐浴后穿的浴衣。

(3)變食:改變平常的飲食。指不飲酒,不吃蔥、蒜等有刺激味的東西。

(4)居必遷坐:指從內室遷到外室居住,不和妻妾同房。

 

【譯文】

齋戒沐浴的時候,一定要有浴衣,用布做的。齋戒的時候,一定要改變平常的飲食,居住也一定搬移地方,(不與妻妾同房)。

 

108 食不厭精,膾(1)不厭細。食饐(2)而餲(3),魚餒(4)而肉敗(5),不食。色惡,不食。臭惡,不食。失飪(6),不食。不時(7),不食,割不正(8),不食。不得其醬,不食。肉雖多,不使勝食氣(9)。唯酒無量,不及亂(10)。沽酒市脯(11),不食。不撤姜食,不多食。

 

【注釋】

(1)膾:音kuài,切細的魚、肉。

(2)饐:音yì,陳舊。食物放置時間長了。

(3)餲:音ài,變味了。

(4)餒:音něi,魚腐爛,這里指魚不新鮮。

(5)?。喝飧癄€,這里指肉不新鮮。

(6)飪:烹調制作飯菜。

(7)不時:應時,時鮮。

(8)割不正:肉切得不方正。

(9)氣:同“餼”,音xì,即糧食。

(10)不及亂:亂,指酒醉。不到酒醉時。

(11)脯:音fǔ,熟肉干。

【譯文】

糧食不嫌舂得精,魚和肉不嫌切得細。糧食陳舊和變味了,魚和肉腐爛了,都不吃。食物的顏色變了,不吃。氣味變了,不吃。烹調不當,不吃。不時新的東西,不吃。肉切得不方正,不吃。佐料放得不適當,不吃。席上的肉雖多,但吃的量不超過米面的量。只有酒沒有限制,但不喝醉。從市上買來的肉干和酒,不吃。每餐必須有姜,但也不多吃。

 

109 祭于公,不宿肉(1),祭肉(2)不出三日。出三日,不食之矣。

 

【注釋】

(1)不宿肉:不使肉過夜。古代大夫參加國君祭祀以后,可以得到國君賜的祭肉。但祭祀活動一般要持續二三天,所以這些肉就已經不新鮮,不能再過夜了。超過三天,就不能再過夜了。

(2)祭肉:這是祭祀用的肉。

 

【譯文】

孔子參加君祭祀典禮時分到的肉,不能留到第二天。祭祀用過的肉不超過三天。超過三天,就不吃了。

 

【評析】

以上4章里,記述了孔子的衣著和飲食習慣??鬃訉?ldquo;禮”的遵循,不僅表現在與君和大夫們見面時的言談舉止和儀式,而且表現在衣著方面。他對祭祀時、服喪時和平時所穿的衣服都有不同的要求,如單衣、罩衣、麻衣、皮袍、睡衣、浴衣、禮服、便服等,都有不同的規定。在吃的方面,“食不厭精,膾不厭細”,而且對于食物,有八種他不吃。吃了,就有害于健康。

 

1010 食不語,寢不言。

 

【譯文】

吃飯的時候不說話,睡覺的時候也不說話。

 

1011 雖疏食菜羹(1),瓜祭(2),必齊(3)如也。

 

【注釋】

(1)菜羹:用菜做成的湯。

(2)瓜祭:古人在吃飯前,把席上各種食品分出少許,放在食具之間祭祖。

(3)齊:同齋。

 

【譯文】

即使是粗米飯蔬菜湯,吃飯前也要把它們取出一些來祭祖,而且表情要像齋戒時那樣嚴肅恭敬。

 

1012 (1)不正,不坐。

 

【注釋】

(1)席:古代沒有椅子和桌子,都坐在鋪于地面的席子上。

 

【譯文】

席子放得不端正,不坐。

 

1013 鄉人飲酒(1),杖者(2)出,斯出矣。

 

【注釋】

(1)鄉人飲酒:指當時的鄉飲酒禮。

(2)杖者:拿拐杖的人,指老年人。

 

【譯文】

行鄉飲酒的禮儀結束后,(孔子)一定要等老年人先出去,然后自己才出去。

 

1014 鄉人儺(1),朝服而立于阼階(2)。

 

【注釋】

(1)儺:音nuó。古代迎神驅鬼的宗教儀式。

(2)阼階:阼,音zuò,東面的臺階。主人立在大堂東面的臺階,在這里歡迎客人。

 

【譯文】

鄉里人舉行迎神驅鬼的宗教儀式時,孔子總是穿著朝服站在東邊的臺階上。

 

1015 (1)人于他邦,再拜而送之(2)。

 

【注釋】

(1)問:問候。古代人在問候時往往要致送禮物。

(2)再拜而送之:在送別客人時,兩次拜別。

 

【譯文】

(孔子)托人向在其他諸侯國的朋友問候送禮,便向受托者拜兩次送行。

 

【評析】

以上6章中,記載了孔子舉止言談的某些規矩或者習慣。他時時處處以正人君子的標準要求自己,使自己的言行盡量符合禮的規定。他認為,“禮”是至高無上的,是神圣不可侵犯的,那么,一投足、一舉手都必須依照禮的原則。這一方面是孔子個人修養的具體反映,一方面也是他向學生們傳授知識和仁德時所身體力行的。

 

 

1016 康子饋藥,拜而受之。曰:“丘未達,不敢嘗。”

 

【譯文】

季康子給孔子贈送藥品,孔子拜謝之后接受了,說:“我對藥性不了解,不敢嘗。”

 

1017 廄焚。子退朝,曰:“傷人乎?”不問馬。

 

【譯文】

馬棚失火燒掉了??鬃油顺貋?,說:“傷人了嗎?”不問馬的情況怎么樣。

 

【評析】

孔子家里的馬棚失火被燒掉了。當他聽到這個消息后,首先問人有沒有受傷。有人說,儒家學說是“人學”,這一條可以作佐證材料。他只問人,不問馬,表明他重人不重財,十分關心下面的人。事實上,這是中國自古以來人道主義思想的發端。

 

1018 君賜食,必正席先嘗之。君賜腥(1),必熟而薦(2)之。君賜生,必畜之。侍食于君,君祭,先飯。

 

【注釋】

(1)腥:牛肉。

(2)薦:供奉。

 

【譯文】

君賜給熟食,孔子一定擺正座席先嘗一嘗。君賜給生肉,一定煮熟了,先給祖宗上供。君賜給活物,一定要飼養起來。同君一道吃飯,在君舉行飯前祭禮的時候,一定要先嘗一嘗。

 

【評析】

古時候君主吃飯前,要有人先嘗一嘗,君主才吃??鬃訉?st1:personname w:st="on" productid="國">國君十分尊重。他在與君吃飯時,都主動嘗一下,表明他對禮的遵從。

 

1019 疾,君視之,東首(1),加朝服,拖紳(2)。

 

【注釋】

(1)東首:頭朝東。

(2)紳:束在腰間的大帶子。

 

【譯文】

孔子病了,君來探視,他便頭朝東躺著,身上蓋上朝服,拖著大帶子。

 

【評析】

孔子患了病,躺在床上,君來探視他,他無法起身穿朝服,這似乎對君不尊重,有違于禮,于是他就把朝服蓋在身上。這反映出孔子即使在病榻上,也不會失禮于國君。

 

1020 君命召,不俟駕行矣。

 

【譯文】

君召見(孔子),他不等車馬駕好就先步行走去了。

 

1021 入太廟,每事問(1)。

 

【注釋】

(1)此章重出。譯文參見《八佾》篇第三之第15章。

 

1022 朋友(1)死,無所歸,曰:“于我殯(2)。”

 

【注釋】

(1)朋友:指與孔子志同道合的人。

(2)殯:停放靈柩和埋葬都可以叫殯,這里是泛指喪葬事務。

 

【譯文】

(孔子的)朋友死了,沒有親屬負責斂埋,孔子說:“喪事由我來辦吧。”

 

1023 朋友之饋,雖車馬,非祭肉,不拜。

 

【譯文】

朋友饋贈物品,即使是車馬,不是祭肉,(孔子在接受時)也是不拜的。

 

【評析】

孔子把祭肉看得比車馬還重要,這是為什么呢?因為祭肉關系到“孝”的問題。用肉祭祀祖先之后,這塊肉就不僅僅是一塊可以食用的東西了,而是對祖先盡孝的一個載體。

 

1024 寢不尸,居不客。

 

【譯文】

(孔子)睡覺不像死尸一樣挺著,平日家居也不像作客或接待客人時那樣莊重嚴肅。

 

1025 見齊衰(1)者,雖狎(2),必變。見冕者與瞽者(3),雖褻(4),必以貌。兇服(5)者式(6)之。式負版者(7)。有盛饌(8),必變色而作(9)。迅雷風烈必變。

 

【注釋】

(1)齊衰:zī cuī,指喪服。

(2)狎:音xiá,親近的意思。

(3)瞽者:盲人,指樂師。

(4)褻:音xiè,常見、熟悉。

(5)兇服:喪服。

(6)式:同軾,古代車輛前部的橫木。這里作動詞用。遇見地位高的人或其他人時,馭手身子向前微俯,伏在橫木上,以示尊敬或者同情。這在當時是一種禮節。

(7)負版者:背負國家圖籍的人。當時無紙,用木版來書寫,故稱“版”。

(8)饌:音zhuàn,飲食。盛饌,盛大的宴席。

(9)作:站起來。

 

【譯文】

(孔子)看見穿喪服的人,即使是關系很親密的,也一定要把態度變得嚴肅起來??匆姰敼俚暮兔と?,即使是常在一起的,也一定要有禮貌。在乘車時遇見穿喪服的人,便俯伏在車前橫木上(以示同情)。遇見背負國家圖籍的人,也這樣做(以示敬意)。(作客時,)如果有豐盛的筵席,就神色一變,并站起來致謝。遇見迅雷大風,一定要改變神色(以示對上天的敬畏)。

 

1026 車,必正立,執綏(1)。車中,不內顧(2),不疾言(3),不親指(4)。

 

【注釋】

(1)綏:上車時扶手用的索帶。

(2)內顧:回頭看。

(3)疾言:大聲說話。

(4)不親指:不用自己的手指劃。

 

【譯文】

上車時,一定先直立站好,然后拉著扶手帶上車。在車上,不回頭,不高聲說話,不用自己的手指指點點。

 

【評析】

以上這幾章,講的都是孔子如何遵從周禮的。在許多舉動上,他都能按禮行事,對不同的人、不同的事、不同的環境,應該有什么表情、什么動作、什么語言,他都一絲不茍,準確而妥貼。所以,孔子的學生們在談起這些時,津津樂道,極其佩服。

 

 

1027 色斯舉矣(1),翔而后集(2)。曰:“山梁雌雉(3),時哉時哉!(4)”子路共(5)之,三嗅而作(6)。

 

【注釋】

(1)色斯舉矣:色,臉色。舉,鳥飛起來。

(2)翔而后集:飛翔一陣,然后落到樹上。鳥群停在樹上叫“集”。

(3)山梁雌雉:聚集在山梁上的母野雞。

(4)時哉時哉:得其時呀!得其時呀!這是說野雞時運好,能自由飛翔,自由落下。

(5)共:同“拱”。

(6)三嗅而作:嗅應為狊字之誤。狊,音jù,鳥張開兩翅。一本作“戛”字,鳥的長叫聲。

 

【譯文】

孔子在山谷中行走,看見一群野雞在那兒飛,孔子神色動了一下,野雞飛翔了一陣落在樹上??鬃诱f:“這些山梁上的母野雞,得其時呀!得其時呀!”子路向他們拱拱手,野雞便叫了幾聲飛走了。

【評析】

這里似乎是在游山觀景,其實孔子是有感而發。他感到山谷里的野雞能夠自由飛翔,自由落下,這是“得其時”,而自己卻不得其時,東奔西走,卻沒有獲得普遍響應。因此,他看到野雞時,神色動了一下,隨之發出了這樣的感嘆。

 

BOOK X   XIANG DANG

10.1 Confucius, in his village, looked simple and sincere, and as if he were not able to speak. When he was in the prince’s ancestral temple, or in the court, he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously.

 

10.2 When he was waiting at court, in speaking with the great officers of the lower grade, he spoke freely, but in a straightforward manner; in speaking with those of the higher grade, he did so blandly, but precisely. When the ruler was present, his manner displayed respectful uneasiness; it was grave, but self-possessed.

 

10.3 When the prince called him to employ him in the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty. He inclined himself to the other officers among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm, as their position required, but keeping the skirts of his robe before and behind evenly adjusted. He hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of a bird. When the guest had retired, he would report to the prince, “The visitor is not turning round any more.”

 

10.4 When he entered the palace gate, he seemed to bend his body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him. When he was standing, he did not occupy the middle of the gateway; when he passed in or out, he did not tread upon the threshold. When he was passing the vacant place of the prince, his countenance appeared to change, and his legs to bend under him, and his words came as if he hardly had breath to utter them. He ascended the reception hall, holding up his robe with both his hands, and his body bent; holding in his breath also, as if he dared not breathe. When he came out from the audience, as soon as he had descended one step, he began to relax his countenance, and had a satisfied look. When he had got the bottom of the steps, he advanced rapidly to his place, with his arms like wings, and on occupying it, his manner still showed respectful uneasiness.

 

10.5 When he was carrying the scepter of his ruler, he seemed to bend his body, as if he were not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, nor lower than their position in giving anything to another. His countenance seemed to change, and look apprehensive, and he dragged his feet along as if they were held by something to the ground. In presenting the presents with which he was charged, he wore a placid appearance. At his private audience, he looked highly pleased.

 

10.6 The superior man did not use a deep purple, or a puce color, in the ornaments of his dress. Even in his undress, he did not wear anything of a red or reddish color. In warm weather, he had a single garment either of coarse or fine texture, but he wore it displayed over an inner garment. Over lamb’s fur he wore a garment of black; over fawn’s fur one of white; and over fox’s fur one of yellow. The fur robe of his undress was long, with the right sleeve short. He required his sleeping dress to be half as long again as his body. When staying at home, he used thick furs of the fox or the badger. When he put off mourning, he wore all the appendages of the girdle. His undergarment, except when it was required to be of the curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and wide below. He did not wear lamb’s fur or a black cap on a visit of condolence. On the first day of the month he put on his court robes, and presented himself at court.

 

10.7 When fasting, he thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and made of linen cloth. When fasting, he thought it necessary to change his food, and also to change the place where he commonly sat in the apartment.

 

10.8  He did not dislike to have his rice finely cleaned, nor to have his mince meat cut quite small. He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was gone. He did not eat what was discolored, or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything which was ill-cooked, or was not in season. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly, nor what was served without its proper sauce. Though there might be a large quantity of meat, he would not allow what he took to exceed the due proportion for the rice. It was only in wine that he laid down no limit for himself, but he did not allow himself to be confused by it. He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market. He was never without ginger when he ate. He did not eat much.

 

10.9 When he had been assisting at the prince’s sacrifice, he did not keep the flesh which he received overnight. The flesh of his family sacrifice he did not keep over three days. If kept over three days, people could not eat it.

 

10.10 When eating, he did not converse. When in bed, he did not speak.

 

10.11 Although his food might be coarse rice and vegetable soup, he would offer a little of it in sacrifice with a grave, respectful air.

 

10.12 If his mat was not straight, he did not sit on it.

10.13 When the villagers were drinking together, upon those who carried staves going out, he also went out immediately after.

 

10.14 When the villagers were going through their ceremonies to drive away pestilential influences, he put on his court robes and stood on the eastern steps.

 

10.15 When he was sending complimentary inquiries to any one in another state, he bowed twice as he escorted the messenger away.

 

10.16 Ji Kang having sent him a present of physic, he bowed and received it, saying, “I do not know it. I dare not taste it.”

 

10.17 The stable being burned down, when he was at court, on his return he said, “Has any man been hurt?” He did not ask about the horses.

 

10.18 When the he would adjust his mat, first taste it, and then give it away to others. When the prince sent him a gift of undressed meat, he would have it cooked, and offer it to the spirits of his ancestors. When the prince sent him a gift of a living animal, he would keep it alive. When he was in attendance on the prince and joining in the entertainment, the prince only sacrificed. He first tasted everything.

 

10.19 When he was ill and the prince came to visit him, he had his head to the east, made his court robes be spread over him, and drew his girdle across them.

 

10.20 When the prince’s order called him, without waiting for his carriage to be yoked, he went at once.

 

10.21 When he entered the ancestral temple of the state, he asked about everything.

 

10.22 When any of his friends died, if he had no relations offices, he would say, “I will bury him.”

 

10.23 When a friend sent him a present, though it might be a carriage and horses, he did not bow. The only present for which he bowed was that of the flesh of sacrifice.

 

10.24 In bed, he did not lie like a corpse. At home, he did not put on any formal deportment.

 

10.25 When he saw any one in a mourning dress, though it might be an acquaintance, he would change countenance; when he saw any one wearing the cap of full dress, or a blind person, though he might be in his undress, he would salute him in a ceremonious manner. To any person in mourning he bowed forward to the crossbar of his carriage; he bowed in the same way to any one bearing the tables of population. When he was at an entertainment where there was an abundance of provisions set before him, he would change countenance and rise up. On a sudden clap of thunder, or a violent wind, he would change countenance.

 

10.26 When he was about to mount his carriage, he would stand straight, holding the cord. When he was in the carriage, he did not turn his head quite round, he did not talk hastily, he did not point with his hands.

 

10.27 Seeing the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, and by and by settles. The Master said, “There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its season! At its season!” Zilu made a motion to it. Thrice it smelt him and then rose.

 

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